The season for pork butchering is commencing.” (Georgetown Courier, December 5, 1874)
Compared to its present-day industrial equivalent, a private slaughterhouse of the 19th century was miniscule, and before the advent of refrigeration, its activity was probably mostly seasonal: livestock was purchased in late summer, fattened in fall, and killed in winter.
But even if it is small, and only operates for a few months a year, a slaughterhouse is not something people want in their neighborhood. In 1820 the city of Georgetown therefore ordained that new slaughterhouses had to be at a fixed distance from the commercial and residential heart of the city––specifically, north of Madison Street (Whitehaven Parkway), and west of Lingan Street (36th Street). For the rest of the century, the bulk of the land that is now Glover Park was, to a great extent, characterized by the meat industry. (Georgetown Ordinances, June 28, 1820)
Although there were butchers and slaughterhouses at many other places on the periphery of Georgetown and Washington City, the list of butchers affected by the fire at Centre Market (December 19, 1870) suggests that from a quarter to a third were from Upper Georgetown or from Tenleytown, presumably because livestock drovers came from points west of the District. (Journal of the Columbia Historical Society, 1960-62:88; vol.26:66)
According to 1865 assessments, there were seven slaughterhouses on either side of what is now Wisconsin Avenue, in the northern portion of Beatty and Hawkins’ Addition to Georgetown: Charles Homiller, Benjamin F. Hunt, Christian C. Yeabower, Theodore Barnes, A. Frederick Scheele, Henry Weaver, and Peter Dill. This was the Georgetown syndicate of master butchers, (which also included Joseph Weaver, and the Kengla brothers, who had their slaughterhouses outside of Georgetown, in Washington County).
A 19th century master butcher was an entrepreneur, with expertise in a great deal more than cuts of meat. He judged, selected, and negotiated the price of the livestock bought from drovers and dealers at annual markets; invested time and money fattening the animals for slaughter; and supervised the cutting, curing, and packing. At the retail end of his operation he presided over his permanent stands in the municipal market houses of Georgetown and Washington, where their clientele awaited them. They were the kings of the marketplace. “Homiller, Yeabower, and jolly Joe Weaver with white aprons, were punctual in attendance with home-killed beef, lamb, and pork, at Western Market during the Civil War.” (Journal of the Columbia Historical Society, 29-30:283)
In its heyday, butchering was a family business; a butcher’s son learned the trade at his father’s side, and was fairly likely to marry a butcher’s daughter. (If he found the field too crowded with brothers and cousins, a butcher’s son might enter into an allied trade: the advantages to having a livestock broker in the family were obvious.) Collectively, the intermarried families of master butchers and allied trades formed a syndicate, with cooperation ensured by family connection.
Below the master butcher was the journeyman butcher who was employed to assist him. If the journeyman had sufficient promise, he might hope to secure his future by marrying the master’s daughter. If the journeyman already had a family, he could expect to be the master’s tenant, perhaps in the house the master had occupied in earlier days; there were also numerous “tenements” on Back Street, and in the village of Wilberforce. Then as now, not much of what happened in these places made news, unless it was bad. In 1873, a beef butcher named John Wilson, out of employment and drinking, hanged himself at the western end of Henry Kengla’s farm, leaving a wife and five children to fend for themselves. (Georgetown Courier, December 6, 1873)
Apprentices indentured to learn “the art and mystery of a butcher” occupied the bottom rung of the trade. In Georgetown––where, as in many other places, it was customary to combine foster care and labor––the apprentice was often an orphan. (Joseph Collins, apprenticed to Henry Kengla, in 1836; William Tracey, to Jacob Kengla, in 1839; Robert Cox, to Jacob Kengla, in 1839: in Provine, Register of District of Columbia Indentures of Apprenticeship, 1801-1893, 1998)
Their lives, as might be expected, left few documentary traces. One apprentice, however, makes appearances in the records over a span of four decades, starting with this: “John Threlkeld of Georgetown certifies that (John) Baptist was born free, and that he knew his mother, Mima, alias Diana, alias Mary Baptist (also free born).” (DC Free Negro Register 39, October 3, 1831)
John Baptist––for whom it was urgent to secure his freedom papers at birth, while those who knew the status of his deceased mother were still available––reappears in the records nine years later. “John Baptist, an orphan negro child who was 9 on January 1 instant, is apprenticed until age 21, with John Barnaclo to learn the art of gardening and farming.” John Barnaclo was the warden of the Georgetown Poor House, and he kept Baptist working until he was 21, when he transferred him to the tutelage of a German butcher who lived south of the Poor House. “With the consent of the Trustees of the Poor of Georgetown, John Baptist, a colored orphan, is apprenticed to serve until January 1, 1853 with Christian Yearbour of Georgetown, to learn the trade of butcher.” (Provine, Register of District of Columbia Indentures of Apprenticeship, 1801-1893, 1998: no.1824, January 21, 1842; no.2135, August 19, 1850; John Baptist married Mary Shipley in 1866, and in the 1872 directory of Georgetown, was listed as a butcher, living at 293 High Street.)
In addition to journeymen and apprentices––the former received wages, the latter did not––the master butchers of Georgetown also had the option of owning workers outright. “Public sale, deed of trust executed by the late George Baltzer to secure a debt: a yellow man named Sam Dorsey, age about 20 years, a butcher.” (Intelligencer, July 14, 1815; the Baltzer family were Georgetown butchers.)
Early censuses show that, when they established themselves in Upper Georgetown, the Kengla, Homiller and Weaver families had no slaves; by 1862 these three families owned 47 slaves. The seven adult men in this number were almost certainly involved in trade of their owners. Among the slaves of Henry Kengla in 1862, Nathan Brooks, age 38, was specifically listed as a butcher. After emancipation a black butcher named Abraham Hawkins lived on Back Street; he––or his son of the same name––had been a slave of Charles Homiller in 1862. (Nathan Brooks, committed August 3, 1858 as a runaway slave by John W. Gross. Released September 14, to Charles Kenley; Hynson, Jerry M., District Of Columbia Runaway And Fugitive Slave Cases 1848-1863, Willow Bend Books, 1999)
After the Civil War, as the volume of Western livestock arriving in the District of Columbia by rail increased in relation to the volume delivered by Virginia drovers at the annual market at Drover’s Rest, on MacArthur Boulevard, the master butchers of Upper Georgetown were compelled to reconsider the location of their operations. And after ice-cooled railroad cars were developed in 1878, and dressed carcasses began to be shipped instead of livestock, local stock pens and feedlots no longer made sense.
At the same time that local and regional meat production was giving way to the growing national system of railroads and stockyards and packing plants, open land on the periphery of Washington, formerly devoted to agricultural use, was becoming desirable for suburban development. (See The Passing of the Butcher Trade.)
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